The Adverse Effect of the COVID-19 Labor Market Shock on Immigrant Employment

July 22, 2020
By: Borjas, George J. (Harvard University); Cassidy, Hugh (Kansas State University)
Abstract: Employment rates in the United States fell dramatically between February 2020 and April 2020 as the initial repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic reverberated through the labor market. This paper uses data from the CPS Basic Monthly Files to document that the employment decline was particularly severe for immigrants. Historically, immigrant men were more likely to be employed than native men. The COVID-related labor market disruptions eliminated the immigrant employment advantage. By April 2020, immigrant men had lower employment rates than native men. The reversal occurred both because the rate of job loss for at-work immigrant men rose relative to that of natives, and because the rate at which out-of-work immigrants could find jobs fell relative to the native job-finding rate. A small part of the relative increase in the immigrant rate of job loss arises because immigrants were less likely to work in jobs that could be performed remotely and suffered disparate employment consequences as the lockdown permitted workers with more “remotable” skills to continue their work from home.
Keywords: immigration, labor supply, COVID-19
JEL: J21 J61
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13277&r=ltv

 


Non Cognitive Skills and Childcare Attendance

July 22, 2020
By: Daniela Del BocaEnrica Maria MartinoChiara Pronzato
Abstract: While several studies have explored the determinants of cognitive outcomes, this paper focuses on non-cognitive skills, for which there is less empirical evidence. Non- cognitive skills have been recognized as important determinants of cognitive skills and later life outcomes. We analyze the impact of attending formal childcare at ages 0-2 on attitudes toward schooling and on the social behavior of children at the end of their first year of primary school and at the end of high school. We find that attendance of childcare significantly improves school readiness and social behavior in elementary school but the impact disappears in high school. The e ects are more beneficial for boys and for children of mothers with lower educational attainment and of fathers in low-level occupations. In addition, we find that formal childcare attendance enhances the social behavior of children without siblings and improves attitudes toward school of children with siblings.
Keywords: non-cognitive ability, child development, childcare
Date:
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cca:wchild:79&r=ltv

The Cultural Origin of Saving Behavior

July 21, 2020
By: Costa Font, JoanGiuliano, PaolaOzcan, Berkay
Abstract: Traditional economic interpretations have not been successful in explaining differences in saving rates across countries. One hypothesis is that savings respond to cultural specific social norms. A seminal paper in economics (1) however did not find any effect of culture on savings. We revisit this evidence using a novel dataset, which allows us to study the saving behavior of up to three generations of immigrants in the United Kingdom. Against the backdrop of existing evidence, we find that cultural preferences are an important explanation for cross-country differences in saving behavior, and their relevance persists up to three generations.
Keywords: Culture; Saving
JEL: D0 Z1
Date:
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:14413&r=ltv

What Accounts for the Rising Share of Women in the Top 1%?

July 21, 2020
By: Richard V. BurkhauserNicolas HéraultStephen P. JenkinsRoger Wilkins
Abstract: The share of women in the top 1% of the UK’s income distribution has been growing over the last two decades (as in several other countries). Our first contribution is to account for this secular change using regressions of the probability of being in the top 1%, fitted separately for men and women, in order to contrast between the sexes the role of changes in characteristics and changes in returns to characteristics. We show that the rise of women in the top 1% is primarily accounted for by their greater increases (relative to men) in the number of years spent in full-time education. Although most top income analysis uses tax return data, we derive our findings taking advantage of the much more extensive information about personal characteristics that is available in survey data. Our use of survey data requires justification given survey under-coverage of top incomes. Providing this justification is our second contribution.
JEL: C81 D31 J16
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27397&r=ltv

What Accounts for the Rising Share of Women in the Top 1%?

July 1, 2020
By: Burkhauser, Richard V. (Cornell University); Herault, Nicolas (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research); Jenkins, Stephen P.(London School of Economics); Wilkins, Roger (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)
Abstract: The share of women in the top 1% of the UK’s income distribution has been growing over the last two decades (as in several other countries). Our first contribution is to account for this secular change using regressions of the probability of being in the top 1%, fitted separately for men and women, in order to contrast between the sexes the role of changes in characteristics and changes in returns to characteristics. We show that the rise of women in the top 1% is primarily accounted for by their greater increases (relative to men) in the number of years spent in full-time education. Although most top income analysis uses tax return data, we derive our findings taking advantage of the much more extensive information about personal characteristics that is available in survey data. Our use of survey data requires justification given survey under-coverage of top incomes. Providing this justification is our second contribution.
Keywords: Top 1%, top incomes, inequality, gender differences, survey under-coverage
JEL: D31 J16 C81
Date: 2020–06
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13359&r=ltv

Non Cognitive Skills and Childcare Attendance

July 1, 2020
By: Daniela Del BocaEnrica Maria MartinoChiara Pronzato
Abstract: While several studies have explored the determinants of cognitive outcomes, this paper focuses on non-cognitive skills, for which there is less empirical evidence. Non- cognitive skills have been recognized as important determinants of cognitive skills and later life outcomes. We analyze the impact of attending formal childcare at ages 0-2 on attitudes toward schooling and on the social behavior of children at the end of their first year of primary school and at the end of high school. We find that attendance of childcare significantly improves school readiness and social behavior in elementary school but the impact disappears in high school. The e ects are more beneficial for boys and for children of mothers with lower educational attainment and of fathers in low-level occupations. In addition, we find that formal childcare attendance enhances the social behavior of children without siblings and improves attitudes toward school of children with siblings.
Keywords: non-cognitive ability, child development, childcare
Date: 2020
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cca:wchild:79&r=ltv