||Daniela Del Boca; Enrica Maria Martino; Chiara Pronzato
||While several studies have explored the determinants of cognitive outcomes, this paper focuses on non-cognitive skills, for which there is less empirical evidence. Non- cognitive skills have been recognized as important determinants of cognitive skills and later life outcomes. We analyze the impact of attending formal childcare at ages 0-2 on attitudes toward schooling and on the social behavior of children at the end of their first year of primary school and at the end of high school. We find that attendance of childcare significantly improves school readiness and social behavior in elementary school but the impact disappears in high school. The e ects are more beneficial for boys and for children of mothers with lower educational attainment and of fathers in low-level occupations. In addition, we find that formal childcare attendance enhances the social behavior of children without siblings and improves attitudes toward school of children with siblings.
||non-cognitive ability, child development, childcare