||This chapter investigates a neglected area in the study of human development relating differences in human development between social groups in a country. Failure to take account of such inter-group inequalities might lead one to exaggerate a country’s developmental achievements. Conversely, one would get a more accurate picture of a country’s achievements with respect to human development only after one had taken cognisance of the fact that the fruits of development were unequally distributed between its various communities. There is a further issue. Not only are developmental fruits unequally distributed between groups, but these fruits may be unequally distributed within the groups. This chapter uses the methodology of “equity adjusted achievement” to compute human development indices and “extended” human development indices for a number of social groups in India.